Government and Politics ISBN 981-3018-55-0

Precursors to nationalism: The armed resistance
Author: Nik Mohamed Nik Mohd Salleh
The Pangkor Treaty of 1874 enabled the British to achieve authority in the Malay states. Constitutionally, the states were to be ‘protected’ sovereign states, retaining their Malay Rulers. Practically, however, the British Resident could extend his control as far as the British wished. This prompted armed opposition from the Malays. British colonial manoeuvring also engendered resistance in the northern Borneo states.

Information in the full article includes
– Latent nationalism
– The Perak war, 1875
– The Pahang war, 1891–1895
– The Mat Salleh revolt
– The Kelantan revolt, 1915
– The Terengganu revolt, 1928

Nationalism: The Malay struggle
Author: Nik Mohamed Nik Salleh, Ramlah Adam and Adnan Haji Awang
The Malays become increasingly aware of shortcomings in their socio-economic situation when the British colonial administration introduced education for the Malay community on a significant scale. The Malays’ desire to protect their rights and improved their position engendered a new sense of nationalism: they became united as a race rather than as subjects of their respective Sultans. Those engaged in the ‘Malay struggle’ included group of religious reformists, conservatives and radicals.

Information in the full article includes
– A new awareness
– The evolution of Malay nationalism

Nationalism: Non-Malays in the Peninsula
Nationalism in northern Borneo
The Japanese invasion
The Japanese Occupation of the Malay Peninsula
The Japanese Occupation of northern Borneo
The British Military Administration
The Malayan Union
Dato’ Onn bin Jaafar
The Federation of Malaya
The Emergency
The Emergency resolved
Merdeka! Attaining Independence
The idea of Malaysia
The formation of Malaysia
External opposition to Malaysia
A constitutional state

The Alliance formula
The 13 May 1969 tragedy
The National Operations Council
Economic policies
The Barisan Nasional framework
Federal–state relations

Constitutional monarchy
The federal legislature
The federal executive
Chief Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj
Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj
Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak bin Dato’ Hussein
Prime Minister Dato’ (later Tun) Hussein bin Dato’ Onn
Prime Minister Dato’ Seri (now Tun) Dr Mahathir bin Mohamad
Prime Minister Dato’ Seri (now Tun) Dr Mahathir—part two
Prime Minister Dato’ Seri Abdullah Ahmad Badawi
The judiciary
The administration of justice

The Public Service
Local government
Federal Territories
National security
The Royal Malaysia Police
The Malaysian Armed Forces

The democratic electoral system
The Alliance and the Barisan Nasional
The United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
UMNO and its constituent bodies
The MCA and the MIC
Barisan component parties
Barisan component parties (continued)
Opposition parties

Primary and secondary education
Higher education
Non-governmental organizations
Information and the news media

Early foreign policy
Expanding ties
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
A global role

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